Cannot get any definite idea of the system of land tenure here, whether the peasants own their own plots, whether they rent them etc. Land appears to be held in plots of two or three acres upwards. Evidently there are common grazing grounds, and there must obviously be some communal arrangement for the distribution of water. The small streams are diverted in different directions according as they are wanted, and by means of the channels and small dykes which exist in the fields water can be run to almost any spot. Nevertheless there is obvious great difference in the water supply between peasants’ plots and the plantations of Europeans and wealthy Arabs. The difficulty about water makes an immense amount of work. The soil in parts here is a sort of chalk which has streams running through it about twenty feet down. In order to get at this – often a stream of a few inches deep – wells are sunk at intervals. One sometimes finds such wells all along the edge of a field a few yards apart – why so many I do not know, but I have seen this in a number of fields, eg. one field had 12 wells along its edge. There is evidence of great shrinkage in the water supply in recent years. Some streams have three beds, ie. one they run in now, a wider one they presumably run in after the rainiest season, and a much larger one they ran in at some time in the past. Some recently cultivated fields seem to have gone out of cultivation. It seems very difficult to get small seeds to germinate without constantly watering the soil.
The peasants here evidently do not use harrows, but they appear to plough it over several times in several directions. At the end of course it is still in furrows. This has the advantage that it gives the seeds (broadcast) a certain tendency to lie in straight lines. Also perhaps conserves water better.
The winter grain (I suppose barley) is now about 4-6” high. Trees seem to do better here than small crops, eg. the olives (black and known for their bitterness) are good. Nevertheless there are practically no trees except cultivated ones, palms, olives, etc.. Firewood [a], ready chopped and good quality, costs about 70-80 frs. (about 8/-) for 1000 kilos (about 1 ton). The only fuel here wood and charcoal. Near here a large new plantation of olives etc. run by Frenchmen. A sort of cooly° barracks for the Arab workers. Quite good, very much better than the corresponding kind of thing would be in India. Except for a few wealthy ones the Arabs in their villages almost all live in tiny straw or palm-thatched huts, like beehives, about 8-10 feet wide. A few wild-looking people living in tiny tents which are simply a piece of cloth stretched over a pole, no walls or flaps. Evidently more or less permanent, as they had built little enclosures round. Normally a village is surrounded by a mud wall about 10 feet high with thorns on top. As in Burma, only men plough but women do all other jobs in the fields, especially tiresome jobs like weeding. Children working, usually at herding animals, when they are almost too young to speak. They are extraordinarily good, never stray away from work and seem to understand exactly what they have to do. Many of the peasants one sees come out and beg as one passes. With some of them this seems to be a reflex action on sight of a European. Generally quite satisfied with 20c. None of the peasant women, at least those one sees working, are veiled.
Examining the Petit Marocain, find its make-up as follows. 10 pages (some days 12) ie. 60 columns. Of this just over one third is filled with advertisements. Back page and last page but one entirely advertisements. Principal adverts are Persil and other Lever products (note it is always stated on the packet that Lever’s stuff is French product), Nestle’s milk, various shipping companies, several eye-tonics and other patent medicines. Special pages are set aside for Moroccan news, which does not as a rule figure on the front page. No book reviews, and though get-up etc. is good the general tone of writing is dull compared with ordinary French papers.
All the papers here heavily patriotic. eg. when Marshall° Lyautey’s statue was being brought to Casablanca, both Petit and Presse for over three weeks gave never less than a column and often most of the page to the subject, ie. to adulations of Lyautey. On the actual day of the installation the Presse gave its entire front page to this. La Presse frequently demands the suppression of the Communist Party, the Petit not, tho’ Daladier is its hero and it reports de la Rocque  sympathetically . The most widely read French paper in Marrakech seems to be the weekly Candide, which is sold on the streets everywhere. On buying it one finds it is virtually Fascist. Left-wing French newspapers seem unobtainable here.
M. Simont has sacked Hussein, evidently on the ground that he was lazy. The job here (for one man) is to look after about 2 acres planted with orange and lemon trees, and part of the ground between the trees, perhaps 20-30 rods, down under marrows etc. Also to look after a few sheep. By European standards it would be said that Hussein worked hard. M. Simont complaining that Hussein (who evidently also had some negro blood) is a Cleuh. They are said to be stupid, shiftless etc. Arabs also accuse them of avarice. Apparently Europeans share the prejudice. Do not know what the pay for this job would be, but probably not more than 10 frs. A day and quarters.
[a] Always wood-olive, mostly roots
 Marshal Louis-Hubert-Gonzalve Lyautey (1854-1934) was, as French Resident-General of Morocco, largely responsible for the development of the country. He was French Minister of War 1916-17, and organized the Colonial Exhibition in Paris in 1931.
 Edouard Daldier (1884-1970), Socialist Premier of France, 1938-40, signed the Munich pact, with Chamberlain, Hitler, and Mussolini, surrendering the Sudentenland to Germany, on 30 September 1938. For Churchill’s account of Daladier’s visit to London on 18 September to discuss Hitler’s demands with Chamberlain, see The Second World War, I, 270-72; U.S.: The Gathering Storm, 301.
 Colonel François de la Rocque was a leading figure of the extreme right who led the Croix de Feu, an anti-Marxist and anti-capitalist group. It was banned but reconstituted as the Parti Social Français. He was anti-German and did not become a collaborator. See also 562, Diary of Events, 6.8.39, Party Politics.
 ‘orange’ was preceded by ‘olive trees’, which was then crossed out.
 Cleuh (which Orwell also spells as Chleuh) is probably Shluh, which is the Hamito-Semitic language of the Berbers of Morocco; see Encyclopedia Britannica. See 530 for Orwell’s reference to their speaking ‘their own Berber dialect’ and also Arabic. Peter Davison